Koh Rong is the second largest island in Cambodia. The word “Rong” refers to cave or tunnel in the Khmer language. The island is located in Commune No.5 of Mittakpheap district in Sihanoukville province which is 25 km off the coast in the Gulf of Thailand. The island spans on an area of 78 square kilometers and lengthens over 43 km of the coastline. There are 4 village communities in the island including Koh Tuich, Doeum D’keuw, Prek Svay, and Sok San. In recent years, Koh Rong has been designed to be a major tourist attraction in the country with a number of foreign-run guesthouses and bungalow resorts. The southeastern tip of the island in Koh Tuich village is considered the largest settlement center of the island with a lot of holiday resorts, and hotels that are scattered over the beaches.

Koh Rong Island is a new commune which was formed in 2000. In order to develop tourism, the Royal Group has been granted a 99-year lease. In 2008 it revealed plans to build "Asia's first environmentally planned resort island."  

Most local residents on the island earn the living from fishing and small-scale crop cultivation, though in recent years, many of them move to work in the tourism section. Except for the narrow paths in the forest, it creates by the illegal loggers. The is no resident on the interior of the island, local people live in the small villages along the beaches.